Considering total LDA categories, each other listener organizations are essential to encounter Similar Condition whenever identifying Dutch /?-?/, since these vowels are acoustically exactly like line of native phonemes. not, in line with the stepwise DAs each other Dutch /?/ and /?/ happen F1 similarity in order to AusE /?/, F2 similarity to help you AusE /?:/ and you will /?/, and you may F3 similarity so you're able to AusE /?/, /?:/ and you can /?/. Although not, centered on group proportions (elizabeth.g., F2: Dutch /?/ > AusE /?:/, 80% and you will /?/ 15%, Dutch /?/ > AusE /?/, 95% and you can /?:/, 5%), it’s predicted one AusE listeners, against Subset Situation, is always to distinguish those two phonemes due to the considering the lowest acoustic overlap between your F2 and F3 signs. Alternatively, PS audience try predicted showing all the way down discrimination reliability versus AusE audience on account of a higher acoustic overlap across the every around three acoustic proportions and are usually after that expected to categorize each other vowels while the PS /i/, /e/, and you will /u/.
In line with the total Da and stepwise designs, AusE listeners is actually predicted to discover the Dutch /a-?/ quite challenging to detect because these vowels was indeed categorized round the two or higher AusE vowel kinds, while PS audience are predict to come across New Circumstance by mostly mapping new music relative to PS /a/.
Into the contribution, in the event the predictions centered on listeners' L1 vowel stocks size try borne out, AusE audience, whose vowel directory is actually larger than compared to PS, are required getting higher discrimination accuracy than PS audience for most of the four Dutch contrasts. As an alternative and you may adopting the L2LP's acoustic hypothesis, when the acoustic differences between L1 and you may L2 dictate low-local voice effect, one another listener groups' discrimination problems should yield comparable overall performance. That is, both listener organizations are essential to stand the, Similar, and you will Subset Problems. To check on these types of contrastive hypotheses, naive AusE listeners' XAB discrimination and you can categorization of 5 Dutch vowel contrasts (/a-?/, /?-i/, /y-?/, /i-y/, and you will /?-?/) try than others out of naive PS listeners stated in the earlier in the day studies (Escudero and Wanrooij, 2010; Escudero and you can Williams, 2011).
Twenty-two monolingual AusE students aged 18–45 years (Mage = 24.1 years; 11 females) participated for course credit at Western Sydney University. Participants were born and raised in Greater Western Sydney, and reported no experience with Dutch or any hearing impairment.
Non-native vowel categorization data from the same AusE listeners were compared to non-native vowel categorization data from 40 PS monolinguals (20 females) from Lima, Peru reported in Escudero and Williams (2011). Participants ranged in age from 18 to 30 years 2 , and reported no knowledge of Dutch or hearing impairment. XAB discrimination data from our AusE listeners was then compared to discrimination data of 22 PS listeners reported in Escudero and Wanrooij (2010). Listeners were monolinguals aged 17–28 years (Mage = ; 10 females) born and raised in Lima, Peru their entire life and reported no knowledge of Dutch.
Fellow member research range on expose study is carried out in accordance on People Search Stability Panel (HREC), West Questionnaire University, approval count H9373.
Stimuli and Techniques
Both categories of users first finished a-two-option pressed alternatives XAB discrimination activity followed by an effective nonnative categorization activity. The auditory stimulus towards XAB discrimination task was indeed 20 however introduced tokens of any of the four Dutch vowels /a/, /?/, /?/, /i/, /y/, and you may /?/, obtained from recordings developed by 20 local Basic Northern Dutch speakers (10 girls) within the monosyllabic utterances in the a simple low-keyword /sVs/ consonantal framework inserted within a service provider sentence (Adank ainsi que al., 2004b). Throughout the XAB task, listeners heard three tunes consecutively and you can was in fact upcoming expected to point if the very first sound (X) sounded more like next (A) Raleigh, NC most beautiful girl or 3rd (B) voice from the clicking on one of two purple squares (viz. “2” and you may “3”) demonstrated for the a pc screen. There can be a keen inter-stimuli period of just one.2 s, which was picked since it is for enough time in order to end in phonological activation (Werker and you can Logan, 1985; Van Hesse and Schouten, 1999; Escudero and you can Wanrooij, 2010), and you may an enthusiastic inter-demonstration interval away from 0.5 s after the participant's selection. The brand new test try used during the Praat and you can contains five blocks (one to for every single contrast-/a-?/, /?-i/, /y-?/, /i-?/, and you can /?-?/) that has had 80 examples for each and every.